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TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
MASTER REFERENCE LIST

MASTER REFERENCE LIST

AAFCO, 2015.  Association of American Feed Control Officials. Champaign, IL,  GOODSamples: Guidance on Obtaining Defensible Samples.  October 2015.

Abreu et al., 2009.  Abreu, L.D.V, R. Ettinger, and T. McAlary, 29(1): 105-117.  Simulated Soil Vapor Intrusion Attenuation Factors Including Biodegradation for Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation.  2009

ADEC, 2009.  Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. Division of Spill Prevention and Response.  Contaminated Sites Program. Guidance on Multi-Increment Soil Sampling.  Website URL: http://dec.alaska.gov/SPAR/csp/guidance/multi_increment.pdf.  March 2009.

Air Toxics, 2012.  Air Toxics, Ltd.  Guide to Air Sampling and Analysis, Canisters and Tedlar Bags.  Website URL: http://www.airtoxics.com.  2012

Air Toxics, 2012b.  Air Toxics, Ltd.  Sorbent and Solution Sampling Guide.  Website URL: http://www.airtoxics.com.  2012

APHA, 2005.   American Public Health Association.  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation. 21st Edition. 

API, 1994.  American Petroleum Institute  Transport and Fate of Non-BTEX Petroleum Chemicals in Soils and Groundwater. American Petroleum Institute, Health and Environmental Sciences Department, Publication Number 4593. 

API, 2005.  American Petroleum Institute.  Collecting and Interpreting Soil Gas Samples from the Vadose Zone, A Practical Strategy for Assessing the Subsurface Vapor to Indoor Air Migration Pathway at Petroleum Hydrocarbon Sites. Publication Number 4741. Washington D.C.: Regulatory Analysis and Scientific Affairs.  Website URL: http://www.api.org/ehs/groundwater/lnapl/soilgas.cfm.  November 2005.

Aqua Merik, 2008.  "AquaMerik – Aquaculture & Environment".  Photograph Source.  Website URL: http://www.aquamerik.com/photo/environnement/fht35.gif.  December 2008.

ASHRAE, 2010.  American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.  Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010. 

ASTM, 1992.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Soil Gas Monitoring in the Vadose Zone: D5314-92e1. West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/D5314-92E1.htm. 

ASTM, 1998.  American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.  Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils, , Designation: D 422 – 63.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D422.htm. 

ASTM, 2000.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action, Designation: E2081-00. West West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/E2081-00.htm. 

ASTM, 2003.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Laboratory Subsampling of Media Related to Waste Management Activities: D6323-98(2003). West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6323.htm. 

ASTM, 2004.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells, Designation: D5092-04. West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6724.htm. 

ASTM, 2004b.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action, Designation E2081-00(2004)e1  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/E2081.htm. 

ASTM, 2005.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Guide for Development of Ground-Water Monitoring Wells in Granular Aquifers, Designation: ASTM D5521-05. West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D5521.htm. 

ASTM, 2005b.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drilling Rigs for Environmental Investigations; ASTM Standard D 6169-98(2005), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6169.htm. 

ASTM, 2006.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Use of Hollow-Stem Augers for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices; ASTM Standard D 5784-95(2006), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D5784.htm. 

ASTM, 2006b.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Use of Direct Air Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices; ASTM Standard D 5782-95(2006), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D5782.htm. 

ASTM, 2006c.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization; ASTM Standard D 6286-98(2006), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6286.htm. 

ASTM, 2006d.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System); ASTM Standard D 2487-06e1, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D2487.htm. 

ASTM, 2006e.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure); ASTM Standard D 2488-06, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D2488.htm. 

ASTM, 2006f.  American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.  ASTM D5314 - 92e1(2006) Standard Guide for Soil Gas Monitoring in the Vadose Zone.  2006

ASTM, 2007b.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Direct Push Technology for Volatile Contaminant Logging with the Membrane Interface Probe, ASTM D7352 - 07. 

ASTM, 2008.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation; ASTM Standard D 2113-08, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D2113.htm. 

ASTM, 2010.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Cone Penetrometer Technology Characterization of Petroleum Contaminated Sites with Nitrogen Laser-Induced Fluorescence, ASTM D6187 - 97(2010). 

ASTM, 2010b.  American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.  ASTM D1945 - 03(2010) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography.  2010.

ASTM, 2011.  American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.  ASTM D1946 - 90(2011) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography.  2011.

ASTM, 2011b.  ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.  Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils. ASTM Standard D1586-11.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D1586.htm. 

ASTM, 2013.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process: E1527-13. West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.astm.org/Standards/E1527.htm.  November 2013.

ATSDR, 1994.  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA.  Toxicological Profile for Chlordane.  Website URL: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp31.html.  May 1994.

ATSDR, 2001.  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology.  Public Health Statement – Pentachlorophenol.  Website URL: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=400&tid=70.  Local Copy (70kb).  September 2001.

Beak et al., 2006.  Beak, D.G., N.T., Basta, K.G. Scheckel, and S.J. Traina.  Bioaccessibility of Arsenic(V) Bound to Ferrihydrite Using a Simulated Gastrointestinal System. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(4):1364:1370.  Website URL: http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/esthag/2006/40/i04/abs/es0516413.html. 

Berger et al., 1994.  Bergren, C.L., M.A. Flora, J.L. Jackson, and E.M. Hicks.  Application of Inorganic-Contaminamted Ground Water to Surface Soils and Compliance with Toxicity Characteristic (TCLP) Regulations. In Metal Speciation and Contamination of Soil, ed. Allen, H.E., C.P. Huang, G.W. Bailey, and A.R. Bowers, 331-343. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, CRC Press Inc.  Local Copy (20kb). 

Blaylock, 1994.  University of Wyoming, Cooperative Extension Service.  Soil Salinity, Salt Tolerance, and Growth Potential of Horticultural and Landscape Plants: B-988,  February 1994.

Bouwer, H., 1989.  The Bouwer and Rice Slug Test - An Update. Groundwater, Vol. 27, No. 3.  May-June 1989.

Brewer et al., 2013.  Brewer, R., Nagashima, J., Kelley, M. and M. Rigby.  Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 10, pp 2441-2467.  Website URL: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/6/2441.  Local Copy (316kb).  2013.

Brewer et al., 2014.  Brewer, R., Nagashima, J., Rigby, M., and M. Schmidt.  Estimation of Subslab Attenuation Factors for Vapor Intrusion Investigations: in preparation.  2014.

Brewer et al., 2016.  Brewer, R., Peard, J. and M. Heskett.  A critical review of discrete soil sampling methods. Soil and Sediment Contamination (pending; manuscripts under review).  June 2016

CalEPA, 1992.  California Environmental Protection Agency. Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC).  Supplemental Guidance For Human Health Multimedia Risk Assessments of Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/upload/forward.pdf.  Local Copy (14kb).  July 1992 (Corrected and Reprinted August 1996).

CalEPA, 1994.  California Environmental Protection Agency, DTSC.  Preliminary Endangerment Assessment Guidance Manual.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/SiteCleanup/Brownfields/upload/SMP_REP_PEA_CH1.pdf.  Local Copy (362kb).  January 1994.

CalEPA, 1994b.  DTSC. CalTOXTM.  A Multimedia Total Exposure Model For Hazardous-Waste Sites, Spreadsheet User’s Guide, Version 1.5.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/upload/userman.pdf.  Local Copy (235kb).  August 1994.

CalEPA, 1995.  Guidelines for Hydrogeologic Characterization at Hazardous Substances Release Sites, Volume 1: Field Investigation Manual.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/SiteCleanup/upload/SMP_Guidelines_Hydrogeologic_Characterization_Vol1.pdf.  Local Copy (355kb).  July 1995.

CalEPA, 1995b.  Monitoring Well Design and Construction for Hydrogeologic Characterization, Guidance Manual for Ground Water Investigations.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/SiteCleanup/upload/SMP_Monitoring_Well_Design.pdf.  Local Copy (1.0mb).  July 1995.

CalEPA, 1996a1.  DTSC.  Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessments at Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities (Part A).  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/upload/overview.pdf.  Local Copy (448kb).  July 4, 1996.

CalEPA, 1996a2.  DTSC.  Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessments at Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities (Part B).  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/upload/scope.pdf.  Local Copy (137kb).  July 4, 1996.

CalEPA, 1996b.  DTSC.  Supplemental Guidance For Human Health Multimedia Risk Assessments of Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/Supplemental_Guidance.cfm.  August, 1996.

CalEPA, 2003.  DTSC and California Regional Water Quality Control Board - Los Angeles Region (LARWQCB).  Advisory – Active Soil Investigations.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/LawsRegsPolicies/Policies/SiteCleanup/upload/SMBR_ADV_activesoilgasinvst.pdf.  Local Copy (831kb).  January 2003.

CalEPA, 2004.   DTSC.  INTERIM FINAL: Guidance for the Evaluation and Mitigation of Subsurface Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/assessingrisk/upload/herd_pol_eval_subsurface_vapor_intrusion_interim_final.pdf.  Local Copy (699kb).  December 15, 2004 (Revised February 7, 2005).

CalEPA, 2004b.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control.  Guidance on the Implementation of EPA Method SW-846 5035.  November 2004.

CalEPA, 2005.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxics Substances Control.  Use of California Human Health Screening Levels in Evaluation of Contaminated Properties.  Website URL: http://www.calepa.ca.gov/Brownfields/documents/2005/CHHSLsGuide.pdf.  January 2005

CalEPA, 2005b.  California Environmental Protection Agency  Advisory on Methane Assessment and Common Remedies at School Sites. Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC).  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/Schools/upload/smbrp_schools_Methane.pdf.  Local Copy (227kb).  June 16, 2005.

CalEPA, 2005c.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Area Region.  Screening For Environmental Concerns at Sites With Contaminated Soil and Groundwater.  February 2005.

CalEPA, 2011.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control.  Guidance for the Evaluation and Mitigation of Subsurface Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air.  August 2011.

CalEPA, 2011b.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control.  Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Advisory.  October 2011.

CalEPA, 2012.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (in conjunction with the California Regional Water Quality Control Board – Los Angeles Region).  Advisory – Active Soil Gas Investigations.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/LawsRegsPolicies/Policies/SiteCleanup/upload/SMBR_ADV_activesoilgasinvst.pdf.  April 2012.

CalEPA, 2013.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxics Substances Control.  Preliminary Endangerment Assessment Guidance Manual.  October 2013.

Cape Technologies, 2009.  Application Note AN-008 Immunoassay analysis of ppt (pg/g) range PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment using rapid extraction and rapid cleanup (modified EPA Method 4025 or Method 4025m).  Website URL: http://www.cape-tech.com..  April, 2009.

Cavallo et al., 1992  Cavallo, A., Gadsby, K. and T.A. Reddy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory.  Natural Basement Ventilation as a Radon Mitigation Technique, EPA/600/SR-92/059. 

CDC, 2000.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health  Hazard Review: Health Effects of Occupational Exposures to Asphalt.  December 2000

Cedergren, H.R., 1977.  Seepage, Drainage, and Flow Nets, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 534p. 

CEN, 1995.  European Committee for Standardization.  European standard BS EN 71-3: Safety of toys, Part 3: Migration of certain elements. Brussels.  Website URL: http://www.bsi-global.com/en/Shop/Publication-Detail/?pid=000000000030152582. 

Chaplin et al. 2002.  Long-Term Evolution of Biodegradation and Volatilization Rates in a Crude Oil-Contaminated Aquifer: Bioremediation Journal, Volume 6, Issue 3.  Website URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10889860290777594.  July 2002.

Clements Associates Inc., 2008.  Sampling Tube Tool.  Website URL: http://www.jmcsoil.com/37.html. 

Cooper et al., 1967.  Cooper, H.H., J.D. Bredehoft, and I.S. Papadopulos.  Response of a Finite Diameter Well to an Instantaneous Charge of Water. Water Resources Res. 3(1):263-269.  Local Copy (352kb).  First Quarter 1967.

County of San Diego, 2002.  Department of Environmental Health, Land and Water Quality Division.  Site Assessment and Mitigation Manual, Vapor Sampling Methodology TWG.  Website URL: http://www.handpmg.com/documents/soil-vapor_guide.pdf.  Local Copy (56kb).  August 8, 2002.

County of San Diego, 2004.  Department of Environmental Health, Land and Water Quality Division. Site Assessment and Mitigation Manual, Section 5: Site Investigation Techniques.  Website URL: http://www.co.san-diego.ca.us/deh/water/docs/sam_section_5.pdf.  Local Copy (10.6mb).  February 18, 2004.

Cowgill, U.M. 1988.  The Chemical Composition of Leachate from a Two-Week Dwell-Time Study of PVC Well Casing and Three-Week Dwell-Time Study of Fiberglass Reinforced Epoxy Well Casing. In Ground-Water Contamination: Field Methods, Symposium February 2-7, 1986. ed. A.G. Collins and A.I. Johnson, 172-184. Philadelphia, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: http://www.fao.org/agris/search/display.do?f=./1990/v1617/US9037246.xml;US9037246. 

Cox-Colvin, 2013.  Cox-Colvin and Associates, Inc.  Standard Operating Procedure, Installation and Extraction of the Vapor Pin™.  December 3, 2013.

Cox-Colvin, 2013b.  Cox-Colvin and Associates.  Standard Operating Procedure, Leak Testing Vapor Pin™ using Mechanical Means.  December 3, 2013

CRWQCB 2003.  California Regional Water Quality Control Board – Los Angeles Region and the Department of Toxic Substances Control.  Advisory – Active Soil Gas Investigations.  Website URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/LawsRegsPolicies/Policies/SiteCleanup/upload/SMBR_ADV_activesoilgasinvst.pdf.  Local Copy (831kb).  January 2003.

Cutler et al., 2006.  Cutler, W.G., N. Hue, M.E. Ortiz-Escobar, and T. Martin.  Approaches to Reduce Bioaccessible Arsenic in Hawai'i Soils: In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds: Monterey, California: May 2006. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press.  Local Copy (20kb). 

Cutler et al., 2013  Cutler, W.G., Brewer. R.C., El-Kadi, A., Hue, N.V., Niemeyer, P.G., Peard, R.J. and C. Ray.  Bioaccessibility of Arsenic in Soil of Former Sugar Cane Plantations, Island of Hawai‘i: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 1 (422), pp177-188.  Local Copy (1.6mb). 

Cutler, W.G. 2009.  Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai’i, Manoa.  Arsenic Field Mapping by XRF: A Quantitative Comparison of Field and Laboratory Methods.  March 9, 2009

Cutler, W.G. 2011.  Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of the Island of Hawaii. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Website URL: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/resources/gg_dissertations.html.  Local Copy (3.1mb). 

Denison et al., 1999.  Denison, M.S., S.D. Seidel, M. Ziccardi, W.J. Rogers, D.J. Brown, and G.C. Clark.  Ah Receptor-Based Bioassays for Dioxins and Related Chemicals: Application and Limitations. Organohalogen Compounds. 40:27-30.  Website URL: http://www.dioxins.com/pdfdocs/AhReceptor_based.pdf.  Local Copy (24kb). 

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Dickson, A.G. and C. Goyet, 1994.  Department of Energy, Oak Ridge national Laboratory.  Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water, CDIAC-74.  (updated 1997).

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DoD, 2008.  Department of Defense, (prepared by Noblis Consultants for the Air Force Institute for Operational Health, Health Risk Assessment Branch.  Tri-Services Handbook for the Assessment of the Vapor Intrusion Pathway.  2008

Domenico et al., 1990.  Domenico, Patrick A,. and Franklin W. Schwartz.  Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology. Second Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  Local Copy (519kb). 

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Eklund, B., 1992.  Practical Guidance for Flux Chamber Measurements of Fugitive Volatile Organic Emission Rates. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 42(12):1583-1592.  Local Copy (20kb). 

Environmental Pumping, 2008.  "Peristaltic Pumping, Sludge Pumps, Auto Desludge Pumps, Peristaltic Sludge Pumps, Effluent Pumps”. Photograph Source.  Website URL: http://www.environmentalpumping.co.uk/html/peristaltic-pumps.htm.  December 2008.

EON, 2008.   Eon Products, Inc.  "EON Water sampling equipment, instruments, environmental sampling supplies, hazardous gas detectors". Photograph Source.  Website URL: http://www.eonpro.com/images/products/8Aspec_blrs.jpg.  December 2008.

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Feenstra, S., 2003.  Spatial Variability of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Chemicals in Soil— Implications for Source Zone Mass Estimates: Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 19–23.  February.

Folk, R.L., 1980.  Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill Publishing, Austin, TX, 184p. 

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Frick, C.M., R.E. Farrell, and J.J. Germida. 1999.  University of Saskatchewan, Department of Soil Science, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.  Assessment of Phytoremediation as an In-Situ Technique for Cleaning Oil-Contaminated Sites.  Website URL: http://cluin.org/download/remed/phyassess.pdf.  Local Copy (360kb).  December 29, 1999.

FRTR, 2002.  Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable.  Tri-Agency Permeable Reactive Barrier Initiative for the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance. Revised Report.  Website URL: http://www.frtr.gov/pdf/2-prb_performance.pdf.  Local Copy (1.7mb).  December 9, 2007.

FRTR, 2007.  Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable web site.  Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide, Version 4.0.  Website URL: http://www.frtr.gov/matrix2/top_page.html. 

General Oceanics, 2008.  General Oceanics, Inc, Water and Air Sampling Products.  Photograph Source.  Website URL: http://www.generaloceanics.com/genocean/ClearNiskin04.jpg.  December 2008.

GeoInsight Online.  GeoInsight Online – No-purge samplers, passive samplers, direct push equipment.  Photograph Source.  Website URL: http://www.geoinsightonline.com/about_small_diam_wells/diagram.html. 

Geosyntec, 2011.  Honolulu Harbor Domestic Commercial Fishing Village Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Geosyntec Consultants.  Third-Party Review of Iwilei District OU1A Methane Conceptual Model and Mitigation Strategy.  April 2011.

Geotek, 2013.  (in-house report prepared for Hawai‘i Department of Health). GeoTek Hawaii, Inc.  Hawaiian Islands soil metal background samples analytical comparison between conventional fixed laboratory inductively coupled plasma/ mass spectrometry SW846 6020 and X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry SW846 6200.  January 10, 2013.

Geotek, 2013b.  (in-house report prepared for Hawai‘i Department of Health). GeoTek Hawaii, Inc.  Wailoa Park arsenic study methodology and lessons learned.  September 23, 2013.

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Hanson, N.S, 1962.  Weed Control Practices and Research for Sugar Cane in Hawai'i: Weeds, Volume 10, No. 3.  Local Copy (20kb).  July 1962.

Hantush et, al., 1955.  Hantush, M.S., and C.E. Jacob.  Nonsteady Radial Flow in an Infinite Leaky Aquifer. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union. 36:95-100.  Local Copy (20kb). 

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Hantush, M.S. 1961.  Aquifer Tests on Partially Penetrating Wells. Proc. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engrs. 87:171-195.  Local Copy (20kb). 

Hantush, M.S. 1964.  Hydraulics of Wells. In Advances in Hydroscience, ed. V. Chow, 281-432. New York: Academic Press.  Local Copy (20kb). 

HAR, 1995.  Hawai'i Administrative Rules.  State Contingency Plan (SCP). Title 11, Chapter 451.  Website URL: http://gen.doh.hawaii.gov/sites/har/AdmRules1/11-451.pdf.  Local Copy (2.2mb).  August 2, 1995.

Hartman, B., 2002.  How to Collect Reliable Soil-Gas Data for Risk-Based Applications, Part 1: Active Soil-Gas Method. LUSTLine Bulletin 42. October.  Website URL: http://www.handpmg.com/documents/LustLine42-Active_Soil_Gas_Part_1.pdf.  Local Copy (370kb). 

Hartman, B., 2003.  How to Collect Reliable Soil-Gas Data for Upward Risk Assessments, Part 2: Surface Flux Chamber Method. LUSTLine Bulletin 44.  Website URL: http://www.handpmg.com/documents/LustLine-44-Flux_Chambers_Part_2.pdf.  Local Copy (228kb).  August 2003.

Hartman, B., 2004.  How to Collect Reliable Soil-Gas Data for Risk-Based Applications - Specifically Vapor Intrusion, Part 3: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. LUSTLine Bulletin 48.  Website URL: http://www.handpmg.com/documents/LustLine-48-FAQ_Part_3.pdf.  Local Copy (327kb).  November 2004.

HDLNR, 2004.  Hawai’i Department of Land and Natural Resources.  Hawai’i Well Construction and Pump Installation Standards. Commission on Water Resource Management.  February 2004.

HDOA, 1969.  Hawai'i Department of Agriculture.  Pesticide Problems in Hawai'i.  Local Copy (20kb).  December 1969.

HDOA, 1977.  Pesticide Usage Patterns in Hawai'i. Pesticide Hazard Assessment Project, Pacific Biomedical Research Center.  Local Copy (20kb). 

HDOA, 1987.  A Preliminary Assessment of Inert Ingredients in Pesticides Used in Hawai'i.  Local Copy (20kb). 

HDOA, 1989.  Inventory of Pesticide Storage and Mixing Sites. Report to the Fifteenth Legislature, 1989 Regular Session in Response to Section 46C of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1988 (Act 390).  Local Copy (20kb).  January 1989.

HDOH, 1985.  Hawai'i Department of Health.  Report to the Thirteenth Legislature, 1985 Regular Session in Response to House Concurrent Resolution No. 39, H.D. 1, S.D. 1 of the Twelfth Legislature, 1984 Session Requesting the Office of Environmental Quality Control to Determine the Source of EDB Contamination of the Waipahu Wells.  Local Copy (20kb).  January 1985.

HDOH, 1985b.  Hawai’i State Department of Health.  Profiles of Fumigants Used in Pineapple Cultivation in Maui: Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Environmental Quality Control.  August 1985.

HDOH, 1985c.  Source of Contamination of Maui Wells. Report to 13th Legislature.  Local Copy (20kb).  January 1985.

HDOH, 1985d.  Source of Contamination of Maui Wells: Hawai’i Department of Agriculture, Report to 13th Legislature.  January 1985.

HDOH, 1990.  Hawai`i Revised Statutes (HRS) 128D: Hawai‘i Department of Health, Hawai`i Environmental Response Law, Chapter 128D.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol03_Ch0121-0200D/HRS0128D/.  Local Copy (111kb). 

HDOH, 1995.  Hawai'i Department of Health, Environmental Management Division.  Risk-Based Corrective Action and Decision Making at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater: Volume 1.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/about/admin/health/environmental/waste/ust/index.html.  Local Copy (13.5mb).  December 1995 (revised June, 1996).

HDOH, 1997.  State of Hawai‘i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation & Emergency Response Office.  Technical Guidance Manual for the Implementation of the Hawai‘i State Contingency Plan.  October 1997.

HDOH, 2000.  Hawai'i Department of Health, Environmental Management Division.  Technical Guidance Manual for Underground Storage Tank Closure and Release Response. Second Edition.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/waste/ust/pdf/contents.pdf.  Local Copy (46kb).  March 2000.

HDOH, 2005.  Hawai'i Department of Health, HEER Office.  Screening for Environmental Concerns at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater. Interim Final.  Local Copy (26.0mb).  May 2005.

HDOH, 2005b.  Hawai'i Department of Health, HEER Office.  Screening for Environmental Concerns at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater. Interim Final.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/hazard/eal2005.html.  Local Copy (7.9mb).  May 2005 (Updated August 2006).

HDOH, 2006.  Proposed Dioxin Action Levels for East Kapolei Brownfield Site.  Local Copy (78kb).  March 23, 2006.

HDOH, 2006b.  Hawai'i Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch.  Groundwater Protection Program. 2005 Groundwater Contamination Maps for the State of Hawai'i.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/water/sdwb/conmaps/conmaps.html.  Local Copy (523kb).  July 28, 2006.

HDOH, 2006c.  Technical Report regarding Soil Action Levels and Categories for Bioaccessible Arsenic.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/hazard/pdf/arsenicactionlevelsaug2006.pdf.  Local Copy (109kb).  August 7, 2006.

HDOH, 2007.  Hawai'i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Use of laboratory batch tests to evaluate potential leaching of contaminants from soil.  Local Copy (215kb).  April 2007.

HDOH, 2007b.  Letter from the Laurence K. Lau, Deputy Director of Environmental Health, Hawai’i Department of Health to Rear Admiral Len R. Hering, Sr., Commander, Navy Region Southwest, DoD Regional Environmental Coordinator Region 9, United States Navy regarding Implementation of the UECA on DoD Owned Property.  October 1, 2007.

HDOH, 2007c.  Hawai‘i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Long-Term Management of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil and Groundwater.  Website URL: http://www.hawaiidoh.com/tgm-content/1909a.aspx.  Local Copy (161kb).  June 2007

HDOH, 2007d.  HEER Office.  Pesticides in Former Agricultural Lands and Related Areas - Updates on Investigation and Assessment (Arsenic, Technical Chlordane, and Dioxin Test Methodologies and Action Levels and Field Sampling Stategies).  May 11, 2007.

HDOH, 2007e.  prepared byTetra Tech EM Inc.  East Kapolei Affordable Housing Project Kapolei, Oahu, Hawai‘i: Hawai‘i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  December 4, 2007.

HDOH, 2008.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Evaluation of Environmental Hazards at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/hazard/eal2005.html.  Local Copy (7.5mb).  Summer 2008, (Updated October 2008).

HDOH, 2010.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Update to Soil Action Levels for TEQ Dioxins and Recommended Soil Management Practices.  Website URL: http://www.hawaiidoh.org.  Local Copy (322kb).  June 2010.

HDOH, 2010b.  Arsenic in Canec Ceilings and Wallboard in Hawai’i.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/soil-arsenic-guidance-and-information.  Local Copy (463kb).  September 2010

HDOH, 2010c.  Technical Guidance Document for the Implementation of Chapter 452 of Title 11, Hawaii Administrative Rules, entitled “Requirements for Decontamination and Cleanup of Methamphetamine Manufacturing Sites.”  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/methamphetamine-laboratory-cleanup.  Local Copy (2.3mb).  September 2007 (Draft Edition). Revised May 2010.

HDOH, 2011.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Screening for Evaluation of Environmental Hazards at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/EALs.  Local Copy (1.0mb).  Fall 2011 (and updates).

HDOH, 2011b.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Technical Guidance Manual Notes: Decision Unit and Multi-Increment Sample Investigations.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov.  Local Copy (4.2mb).  2011.

HDOH, 2011c.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Update to Soil Action Levels for Inorganic Arsenic and Recommended Soil Management Practices.  Website URL: http://www.hawaiidoh.org/.  Local Copy (297kb).  November 25, 2011.

HDOH, 2011d.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Summary of Pesticide and Dioxin Contamination Associated with Former Sugarcane Operations.  Website URL: http://www.hawaiidoh.org/.  Local Copy (416kb). 

HDOH, 2011e.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Guidance for the Evaluation of Imported and Exported Fill Material, Including Contaminant Characterization of Stockpiles.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/technical-guidance-and-fact-sheets.  Local Copy (4.8mb). 

HDOH, 2011f.  Hawai`i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Screening for Environmental Hazards at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/EALs..  Local Copy (18.8mb).  Fall 2011 (and updates),

HDOH, 2011g.  Past Use of Chlordane, Dieldrin, and other Organochlorine Pesticides for Termite Control in Hawaii: Safe Management Practices around Treated Foundations or during Building Demolition. Termiticides fact sheet..  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/documents/573a9d28-3b52-4e39-ae33-87d77632cf82.  Local Copy (849kb).  September 2011.

HDOH, 2011h.  A Guide to Soil Testing for Organochlorine (OC) Termiticides at Residential Sites in Hawaii. OC Termiticide Sampling Guide fact sheet.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/documents/c1578f33-2d86-43f1-8655-64862c45f642.  Local Copy (1.7mb).  September 2011.

HDOH, 2011i.  Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Use of Decision Unit and Multi-increment Soil Sample Investigation Approaches to Characterize A Subsurface Solvent Plume.  March 2011.

HDOH, 2011j.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch.  Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste Disposal General Guidance.  Website URL: http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/waste/hw/pdf/constdemguid.pdf.  February 2011.

HDOH, 2012.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Field Investigation of the Chemistry and Toxicity of TPH in Petroleum Vapors: Implications for Potential Vapor Intrusion Hazards.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/documents/4c0ca6c1-0715-4e0d-811b-33debe220e31.  Local Copy (11.3mb).  2012.

HDOH, 2012b.  Hawai‘i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Hawaiian Islands Soil Metal Background Evaluation Report.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/Background%20Metals%20in%20Hawaiian%20Islands%20Soils.  Local Copy (5.8mb).  May 2012.

HDOH, 2012c.  Hawai‘i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Additional Notes on HDOH report Field Investigation of the Chemistry and Toxicity of TPH in Petroleum Vapors.  Website URL: http://www.hawaiidoh.org/tgm-guidance/TPH%20Soil%20Gas%20Report%20(HDOH%20August%202012).pdf.  Local Copy (13.8mb).  August 2012.

HDOH, 2013.  Arsenic in Hawaiian Soils: Questions and Answers on Health Concerns.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Leaders/HEER/soil-arsenic-guidance-and-information.  Local Copy (898kb).  September 2010 (arsenic level updated April 2013).

HDOH, 2014.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Laboratory date for samples of Hawai´i Kai dredge material at 85-1383 C&D Waianae Valley Road, Waianae, O´ahu.  January 10, 2014.

HDOH, 2014b.  Hawai‘i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Decision Error Associated with the use of Discrete Soil Sample Data in Environmental Investigations, Part 1: Field Investigation of Discrete Sample Variability.  October 2014.

HDOH, 2015.  Hawai´i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Small-Scale Variability of Discrete Soil Sample Data, Part 1: Field Investigation of Discrete Sample Variability.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Org/HEER/.  June 2015.

HDOH, 2015b.  Hawai´i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Small-Scale Variability of Discrete Soil Sample Data, Part 2: Causes and Implications for Use in Environmental Investigations.  Website URL: http://eha-web.doh.hawaii.gov/eha-cma/Org/HEER/.  June 2015.

Helsel, Dennis, 2005.  Nondetects and Data Analysis: Statistics for Censored Environmental Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  Website URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471671738.html.  Local Copy (20kb). 

Henningson et al., 1999.  Henningson, G., C. Weis, S. Casteel, L. Brown, E. Hoffman, W. Brattin, J. Drexler, and S. Christensen.  Differential absorption of lead in 20 soils from Superfund mine-waste sites. Conference on Topics in Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB.  Local Copy (20kb).  April 15, 2000.

Hewitt & Lukash, 1999.  U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.  PID-Based Estimation of the Concentration of Aromatic and Chlorinated VOCs in Soil.  Website URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6521(1999)3:3%3C193%3A%3AAID-FACT7%3E3.0.CO%3B2-A/abstract.  March 1999.

Hewitt, A.D., 1999.  Frozen Storage of Soil Samples for VOC Analysis. Environmental Testing and Analysis, Vol. 8 (5): 18-25.  Sept/Oct 1999.

HRS 128D.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  Hawai'i Environmental Response Law (HERL), Chapter 128D.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol03_Ch0121-0200D/HRS0128D/. 

HRS 128E.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  Hawai'i Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Chapter 128E.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol03_Ch0121-0200D/HRS0128E/. 

HRS 269E.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  One Call Center; Advanced Warning to Excavators. Chapter 269E.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol05_Ch0261-0319/HRS0269E/.  Local Copy (20kb). 

HRS 342B.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  Air Pollution Control, Chapter 342B.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol06_Ch0321-0344/HRS0342B/HRS_0342B-.htm. 

HRS 342D.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  Water Pollution, Chapter 342D.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol06_Ch0321-0344/HRS0342D/. 

HRS 508C.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  Uniform Environmental Covenants Act (UECA), Chapter 508C.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol12_Ch0501-0588/HRS0508C/.  Local Copy (20kb). 

HRS 92F.  Hawai'i Revised Statutes.  Uniform Information Practices Act (UIPA), Chapter 92F.  Website URL: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol02_Ch0046-0115/HRS0092F/.  Local Copy (20kb). 

HRS, 2006.  Hawai`i Revised Statutes  One Call Center; Advanced Warning to Excavators. Chapter 269E.  Website URL: www.digsafehawaii.com.  2006

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ITRC, 1997.  Interstate Technology Regulatory Council.  Technical Requirements for On-site Thermal Desorption of Solid Media Contaminated With Hazardous Chlorinated Organics.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/Guidance/GetDocument?documentID=97.  Local Copy (201kb).  April 18, 1997.

ITRC, 1998.  Interstate Technology Regulatory Council.  Technical Guidelines for On-site Thermal Desorption of Solid Media and Low Level Mixed Waste Contaminated with Mercury and/or Hazardous Chlorinated Organics.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/Guidance/GetDocument?documentID=98.  Local Copy (242kb).  September 2, 1998.

ITRC, 2002.  Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council.  A Systematic Approach to In-Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater Including Decision Trees on In-Situ Bioremediation for Nitrates, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Perchlorate.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/Guidance/GetDocument?documentID=43.  Local Copy (2.0mb).  August 2002.

ITRC, 2005.  Interstate Technology Regulatory Council.  Technical and Regulatory Guidance for In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Second Edition.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/Guidance/GetDocument?documentID=45.  Local Copy (4.8mb).  January 2005.

ITRC, 2007.  Interstate Technology Regulatory Council.  Vapor Intrusion Pathway: A Practical Guideline. Prepared by the ITRC Vapor Intrusion Team.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/Documents/VI-1.pdf.  Local Copy (3.2mb).  January 2007.

ITRC, 2009.  Interstate Technology Regulatory Council.  Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals. Prepared by the ITRC LNAPLs Team.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/Guidance/GetDocument?documentID=48.  Local Copy (1.0mb).  December 2009.

ITRC, 2011.  Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council  ITRC guidance documents.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/gd.asp.  2011

ITRC, 2012.  Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.  Incremental Sampling Methodology. ISM-1.  Website URL: http://www.itrcweb.org/ism-1/Executive_Summary.html.  February 2012.

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MADEP, 2002b.  Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.  Indoor Air Sampling and Evaluation Guide. WSC Policy No. 02-430. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Boston, MA.  Website URL: http://www.mass.gov/eea/waste-mgnt-recycling/.  Local Copy (821kb).  April 2002.

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TTEMI, 2012.  Tetra Tech EMI.  Ho`opili and University of Hawaii West Oahu Campus Kapolei, Oahu, Hawai‘i.  August 20, 2012.

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USACE, 1998.  Monitoring Well Design, Installation and Documentation a Hazardous Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Sites, Engineering Manual EM 1110-1-4000. Washington, DC.  Website URL: http://www.usace.army.mil/publications/eng-manuals/em1110-1-4000/toc.htm.  Local Copy (1.2mb).  November 1, 1998.

USACE, 1998b.  United States Army Corps of Engineers.  USACE Sample Collection and Preparation Strategies for Volatile Organic Compounds in Solids.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/tio/download/stats/sampling.pdf.  October 1998.

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USACE, 2005.  Guidance for Evaluating Performance-Based Chemical Data, Engineering Manual EM 200-1-10. Washington, DC.  Website URL: http://140.194.76.129/publications/eng-manuals/em200-1-10/entire.pdf.  Local Copy (535kb).  June 30, 2005.

USACE, 2007.  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  Protocols for Collection of Surface Soil Samples at Military Training and Testing Ranges for the Characterization of Energetic Munitions Constituents, ERDC/CRREL TR-07-10.  July 2007.

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USDA, 2000.  United States Department of Agriculture.  Crop Profile for Pineapples in Hawai'i. Crop Profile for Sugarcane in Hawai'i.  Website URL: http://www.ipmcenters.org/CropProfiles/docs/hisugarcane.html.  Local Copy (29kb). 

USDA, 2015.  United States Department of Agriculture.  Soil Surveys for Hawai’i: (publication date varies for each island). 

USDA-NRCS, 2007.  United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.  Soil Survey Manual.  Website URL: http://soils.usda.gov/technical/manual/contents/chapter4d.html. 

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USDOD, 2000.  United States Department of Defense.  Cost and Performance Report - Multi-Site In-Situ Air Sparging, Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP).  Website URL: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a435719.pdf.  Local Copy (1.1mb).  December 2000.

USDOE, 2002.  U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technology Program.  Spot Ventilation, Source Control to Improve Indoor Air Quality (Technology Fact Sheet).  Website URL: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/26466.pdf. 

USEIA, 2012.  US Energy Information Administration.  Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Climate Zones Maps.  Website URL: http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/census-maps.cfm. 

USEPA, 1983.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-600/4-79-020.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=30000Q10.txt.  Local Copy.  March 1983.

USEPA, 1985.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances, Washington DC.  Verification of PCB Spill Cleanup by Sampling and Analysis, EPA-560/5-85·026.  August 1985.

USEPA, 1986.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances, Washington DC.  Field Manual for Grid Sampling of PCB Spill Sites to Verify Cleanups, EPA-560/5-86·017.  May 1986.

USEPA, 1987.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office ofEmergency and Remedial Response, Washington DC.  Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities, EPA/540/G-87/003.  March 1987.

USEPA, 1988.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA. EPA/540/G-891/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3 01, Interim Final. Washington D.C.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/pdfs/540g-89004-s.pdf.  Local Copy (3.9mb).  October 1988.

USEPA, 1988b.  Region 9. Recommended Procedures for Implementation of Superfund Risk Assessment Guidelines.  Local Copy (20kb).  August 17, 1988.

USEPA, 1988c.  Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, OSWER Directive 9285.5-1, Publication EPA/540/1-88/001. Washington D.C.  Website URL: http://rais.ornl.gov/homepage/Exposure_Assessment_Manual_1988_EPA5401881001.pdf.  Local Copy (4.3mb).  April 1988.

USEPA, 1989.  Criteria for Identifying Areas of Vulnerable Hydrogeology Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Appendix B - Ground-Water Flow Net/Flow Line Construction and Analysis.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=40001F6N.txt.  Local Copy (20kb).  Interim Final 1989.

USEPA, 1989b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.  Methods of Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards, Volume 1: Soils and Solid Media, EPA 230/02-89-042. (see Section 7.4 and Table 7.1 especially).  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=200081SR.txt.  Local Copy (4.5mb).  February 1989.

USEPA, 1989c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume II, Environmental Evaluation Manual. EPA/540/1-89/001.  Website URL: http://rais.ornl.gov/homepage/RASUPEV.pdf.  Local Copy (548kb).  March 1989.

USEPA, 1989d.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  Interim Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Guidance, Volume II of IV, Soil Groundwater and Subsurface Gas Releases. EPA 530/SW-89-031, OSWER Directive 9502.00-6D. Washington D.C.  Local Copy (20kb).  May 1989.

USEPA, 1989e.  Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part A. USEPA/540/1-89/002. Washington D.C.: GPO.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ragsa/index.htm.  Local Copy (10.1mb).  December 1989.

USEPA, 1990.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Washington DC.  A Rationale for the Assessment of Errors in the Sampling of Soils, EPA/800/4-90/013.  May 1990.

USEPA, 1991.  Handbook of Suggested Practices for the Design and Installation of Groundwater-Monitoring Wells. EPA160014-891034. Las Vegas, Nevada.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oust/cat/wwelldct.pdf.  Local Copy (5.8mb).  March 1991.

USEPA, 1991b.  Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment in Superfund Remedy Selection Decisions. OSWER Directive 9355.0-30.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/pdf/baseline.pdf.  Local Copy (56kb).  April 2, 1991.

USEPA, 1991c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Volume II, Chapter 11. SW-846.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/online/index.htm.  Local Copy (20kb).  1991, revised 2003.

USEPA, 1991d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, ISBN No. 0-16-035919-8.  Building Air Quality, A Guide for Building owners and Facility Managers.  Website URL: http://www2.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/building-air-quality-guide-building-owners-and-facility-managers-printable.  Local Copy.  December 1991.

USEPA, 1991e.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Directive 9285.6-03.  Human Health Evaluation Manual, Supplemental Guidance: Standard Default Exposure Factors.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=90181100.txt.  Local Copy. 

USEPA, 1991f.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Management of Investigaton-Derived Wastes During Site Inspections, OERR Directive 9345.3-02.  May 1991.

USEPA, 1992.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  Groundwater Issue - Fundamentals of Ground-Water Modeling. EPA/540/S-92/005. Washington DC.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=10002DP6.txt.  Local Copy (88kb).  April 1992.

USEPA, 1992b.  Supplemental Guidance to RAGS: Calculating the Concentration Term. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. OSWER Publication 9258.7-081. Washington D.C.  Website URL: http://www.deq.state.or.us/lq/pubs/forms/tanks/UCLsEPASupGuidance.pdf.  Local Copy (939kb).  May 1992.

USEPA, 1992c.  Preparation of Soil Sampling Protocols: Sampling Techniques and Strategies. EPA/600/R-92/128.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oust/cat/mason.pdf.  Local Copy (2.3mb).  July 1992.

USEPA, 1992d.  RCRA Ground-Water Monitoring: Draft Technical Guidance. Office of Solid Waste. Washington DC.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/correctiveaction/index.htm.  Local Copy (2.0mb).  November 1992.

USEPA, 1993.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Remedies: Policies and Procedures. EPA Document No. 540-F-93-047.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/finalpdf/pol.pdf.  Local Copy (86kb).  September 1993.

USEPA, 1993b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Remedies: Site Characterization and Technology Selection for CERCLA Sites with Volatile Organic Compounds in Soils. EPA Document No. 540-F-93-048.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/finalpdf/scts.pdf.  Local Copy (358kb).  September 1993.

USEPA, 1993c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Remedy for CERCLA Municipal Landfill Sites. EPA Document No. 540-F-93-035.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/finalpdf/cmls.pdf.  Local Copy (472kb).  September 1993.

USEPA, 1994.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Photoionization Detector (PID) HNU, SOP# 2114.  Website URL: http://www.dem.ri.gov/pubs/sops/wmsr2114.pdf.  Local Copy (57kb).  Ocober, 6, 1994.

USEPA, 1994b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  Technical Support Document: Parameters and Equations Used in the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (v. 0.99d). EPA/540/R-94/040, PB94-963505. Washington, D.C.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/lead/products/tsd.pdf.  Local Copy (928kb).  December 1994.

USEPA, 1995.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Rapid Optical Screen Tool (ROST™) - Innovative Technology Verification Report, EPA/540/R-95/519.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/cmb/site/pdf/papers/sb131.pdf.  Local Copy (82kb).  August 1995.

USEPA, 1995b.  Superfund Program, Representative Sampling Guidance, Volume 1: Soil. Interim Final. EPA 540/R-95/141, OSWER Directive 9360.4-16, PB96-963207.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/char/SF_Rep_Samp_Guid_soil.pdf.  Local Copy (1.1mb).  December 1995.

USEPA, 1995c.  Superfund Program, Representative Sampling Guidance, Volume 5: Water and Sediment. Interim Final. OSWER Directive 9360.4-16.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/region09/qa/pdfs/fieldsamp-sfguidance-vol5.pdf.  Local Copy (2.3mb).  December 1995.

USEPA, 1995d.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Remedy - CERCLA Landfill Caps RI/FS Data Collection Guide . EPA Document No. 540-F-95-009.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/finalpdf/caps.pdf.  Local Copy (67kb).  August 1995.

USEPA, 1995e.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Remedy for Soils, Sediments, and Sludges at Wood Treater Sites. EPA Document No. 540-R-95-128.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/wood/wodtreat.pdf.  Local Copy (270kb).  December 1995.

USEPA, 1995f.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, EPA Document # 402-K-93-007.  The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality.  April 1995.

USEPA, 1996.  Organochlorine Pesticides by Gas Chromatography, Method 8081A.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/index.htm.  Local Copy (20kb). 

USEPA, 1996b.  Soil Screening Guidance: Technical Background Document. Publication 9355.4-17A.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/soil/introtbd.htm.  Local Copy (68kb).  May 1996.

USEPA, 1996c.  Soil Gas Sampling, Standard Operating Procedure No. 2042. Washington, D.C.  Local Copy (108kb).  June 1996.

USEPA, 1996d.  Sampling Ambient Water for Trace Metals at EPA Water Quality Criteria Levels, Method 1669. EPA 821-R-96-011.  Local Copy (763kb).  July 1996.

USEPA, 1996e.  Recommendations of the Technical Review Workgroup for Lead for an (Interim) Approach to Assessing Risks Associated with Adult Exposures to Lead in Soil.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/contaminants/lead/products.htm.  Local Copy (4.8mb).  December 1996 (Revised January 2003.)

USEPA, 1996f.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  User Guide to the VOCs in Soils Presumptive Remedy. EPA Document No. 540-F-96-008.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/finalpdf/vc.pdf.  Local Copy (158kb).  July 1996.

USEPA, 1996g.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Response Strategy and Ex-Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Ground Water at CERCLA Sites. Final Guidance . EPA Document No. 540-R-96-023.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/gwdocs/gwguide/gwfinal.pdf.  Local Copy (251kb).  October 1996.

USEPA, 1996h.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  How to Effectively Recover Free Product at Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for State Regulators. EPA 510-R-96-001.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=100006J5.txt.  Local Copy.  September 1996.

USEPA, 1996i.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Innovative Ground-Water Remediation Technologies: Publications and Conference Proceedings. 1990-1996. Technology Innovation Office.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/remed/gwbib.pdf.  Local Copy (483kb).  November 1996.

USEPA, 1996j.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer Network, Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center,  Method 3C, Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrogen, and Oxygen from Stationary Sources.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/ttnemc01/methods/method3c.html.  1996

USEPA, 1996k.  Silica Gel Cleanup, Method 3630C: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/3630c.pdf.  Local Copy (80kb). 

USEPA, 1996l.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Soil Screening for Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4030).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996m.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Soil Screening for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4035).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996n.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening for Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4020).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996o.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening Test Method for Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil (SW-846 Method 9078).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996p.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening Test Method for Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Transformer Oil (SW-846 Method 9079).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996q.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Soil Screening for Chlordane by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4041).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996r.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Soil Screening for DDT by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4042).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996s.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Soil Screening for Toxaphene by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4040).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996t.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening for 2,4-D (in soil or water) by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4015).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996u.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening for Pentachlorophenol (in soil and wastewater) by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4010A).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996v.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  TNT Explosives in Soil by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4050).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996w.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  RDX in Soil by Immunoassay (SW-846 Method 4051).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1996x.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Colorometric Screening Method for TNT in Soil (SW-846 Method 8515).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  December, 1996.

USEPA, 1997.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), Office of Research and Development and Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables. Annual Update. Washington D.C.  Website URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2877. 

USEPA, 1997b.  Expedited Site Assessment Tools for Underground Storage Tank Sites. A Guide for Regulators. EPA 510-B-97-001.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=100006KD.txt.  Local Copy.  March 1997.

USEPA, 1997c.  Presumptive Remedy: Supplemental Bulletin Multi-Phase Extraction (MPE) Technology for VOCs in Soil and Groundwater. EPA 540-F-97-004, OSWER Directive 9355.0-68FS.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/toolkit/finalapr.pdf.  Local Copy (240kb).  April 1997.

USEPA, 1997d.  Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments. Interim Final, EPA 540-R-97-006.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ecorisk/ecorisk.htm.  Local Copy (455kb).  June 5, 1997.

USEPA, 1997e.  Exposure Factors Handbook: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/P-95/002Fa.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/efh/.  Local Copy (11.0mb).  August 1997.

USEPA, 1997f.  Toxicological Review of Technical Chlordane (CAS No. 12789-03-6). IRIS database.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/iris/toxreviews/0142-tr.pdf.  Local Copy (385kb).  December 1997.

USEPA, 1997g.  Method 5035. Closed-System Purge-and-Trap and Extraction for Volatile Organics in Soil and Waste Samples, Revision 0.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/5035.pdf.  December 1996.

USEPA, 1997h.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Design Guidelines for Conventional Pump-and-Treat Systems. EPA/540/S-97/504.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/gwdocs/pmptreat/htm.  September 1997.

USEPA, 1998.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development.  Innovative Technology Verification Report - Site Characterization Analysis Penetrometer Systems (SCAPS) Technology Report. EPA 600-R-95/520. Washington D.C..  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/cmb/site/pdf/papers/sb125.pdf.  Local Copy (81kb).  March 1998.

USEPA, 1998b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, SW-846 Manual. Revision 5. Washington, D.C.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/online/index.htm.  Local Copy (20kb).  April 1998.

USEPA, 1998c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA 542-R-98-005.  Website URL: http://www.geo-solutions.com/tech-papers/pdf/EPA%20-%20Evaluation%20of%20Subsurface%20Barriers%20at%20Waste%20Sites.pdf.  Local Copy (1.7mb).  August 1998.

USEPA, 1998d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund Innovation Technology Evaluation Program, EPA/600/R-98/095.  Environmental Technology Verification Report: Passive Soil Gas Sampling, W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., GORE-SORBER® Screening Survey.  August, 1998.

USEPA, 1998e.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund Innovation Technology Evaluation Program, Contract No. 68-C5-0037; EPA/600/R-98/095.  Environmental Technology Verification Report: Soil Gas Sampling Technology Quadrel Services Inc., EMFLUX Soil Gas System.  August, 1998.

USEPA, 1998f.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation.  Building Indoor Air Quality Action Plan, EPA 402-K-98-001.  1998

USEPA, 1998g.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.  Approach for Addressing Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and RCRA Sites. OSWER Directive 9200.4-26.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/pdfs/92-00426-s.pdf.  Local Copy (43kb).  April 13, 1998.

USEPA, 1998h.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Code of Federal Regulations.  CFR Part 761.61, PCB Remediation Waste. 

USEPA, 1999.  Compendium of ERT Groundwater Sampling Procedures. EPA 540/P-91/007. Washington D.C.  Website URL: http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/wq/permitsunit/PolicyandGuidance/gw_samplingcompend.pdf.  Local Copy (20kb).  January 1999.

USEPA, 1999b.  Compendium of Methods. Second Edition. Technology Transfer Network, Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center. Washington, D.C.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/.  Local Copy (20kb).  January 1999.

USEPA, 1999c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Sciences Division.  Correct Sampling Using the Theories of Pierre Gy. Las Vegas, NV.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/esd/factsheets/csutpg.pdf.  Local Copy (141kb).  March 1999.

USEPA, 1999d.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  The Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund, RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tanks Sites. OSWER Directive 9200.4-17P.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/swerust1/directiv/d9200417.pdf.  Local Copy (278kb).  April 21, 1999.

USEPA, 1999e.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Phytoremediation Resource Guide. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA 542-B-99-003.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/tio/download/remed/phytoresgude.pdf.  Local Copy (426kb).  June 1999.

USEPA, 1999f.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Presumptive Remedy for Metals-in-Soil Sites. EPA Document No. 540-F-98-054.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/remedy/presump/finalpdf/metalspr.pdf.  Local Copy (199kb).  September 1999.

USEPA, 1999g.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Oil/Water Separators. Best Environmental Practices for Auto Repair and Fleet Maintenance.  November 1999.

USEPA, 2000.  Data Quality Objectives Process for Hazardous Waste Sites: Final Guidance. Office of Environmental Information. EPA/600/R-00/007.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/quality1/qs-docs/g4hw-final.pdf.  Local Copy (599kb).  January 2000.

USEPA, 2000b.  Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclors). Technology Transfer Network, Air Toxics Web Page. Hazard Summary.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/polychlo.html.  Local Copy (20kb).  April 1992 ( Revised in January 2000.)

USEPA, 2000c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  Engineered Approaches to In-Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications. EPA542-R-00-008.  Website URL: http://clu-in.org/download/remed/engappinsitbio.pdf.  Local Copy (2.2mb). 

USEPA, 2000d.  Office of Environmental Information.  Guidance for Data Quality Assessment: Practical Methods for Data Analysis, EPA QA/G-9, QA00 Update. EPA/600/R-96/084.  Website URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=30003GXE.txt.  Local Copy (1.7mb).  July 2000.

USEPA, 2000e.  TRW Recommendations for Sampling and Analysis of Soil at Lead (Pb) Sites: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Solid Waste and Emergency Response, EPA 540-F-0-010/OSWER 9285.7-38.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/lead/guidance.htm.  April 2000.

USEPA, 2000f.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  User’s Guide for the Johnson and Ettinger (1991) Model for Subsurface Vapor Intrusion into Buildings.  September 1997 (and updates).

USEPA, 2000g.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  In-situ Chemical Oxidation for Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water. Groundwater Currents. Issue 37. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/newsltrs/gwc0900.pdf.  Local Copy (79kb).  September 2000.

USEPA, 2000h.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  In-situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chromium. Technical Resource Guide. Office of Research and Development.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/remed/epa625r00005.pdf.  Local Copy (1.3mb).  October 2000.

USEPA, 2001.  Using the Triad Approach to Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Hazardous Waste Site Cleanups in Current Perspectives in Site Remediation and Monitoring. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA 542-R-01-016.  Website URL: http://www.brownfieldstsc.org/pdfs/triad2.pdf.  Local Copy (168kb).  October 2001.

USEPA, 2001b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  A Citizen's Guide to Activated Carbon Treatment. EPA 542-F-01-020.  Website URL: http://clu-in.org/download/citizens/activatedcarbon.pdf.  Local Copy (533kb).  December 2001.

USEPA, 2001c.  Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS): Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part D, Standardized Planning, Reporting and Review of Superfund Risk Assessments). Final.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ragsd/tara.htm.  Local Copy (20kb).  December 2001.

USEPA, 2001d.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Reuse Assessments: A Tool to Implement the Superfund Land Use Directive. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Memorandum 9355.7-06P.  Website URL: http://www.cluin.org/download/toolkit/thirdednew/reuseassesstool.pdf.  Local Copy (87kb).  June 4, 2001.

USEPA, 2001e.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  A Citizen’s Guide To Air Stripping. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA 542-F-01-016.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/citizens/airstripping.pdf.  Local Copy (529kb).  December 2001.

USEPA, 2001f.  United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development.  Innovative Technology Verification Report - Field Measurement Technologies for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil. Dexsil ® Corporation PetroFlag™ System, EPA/600-R-01/09.  September 2001.

USEPA, 2001g.  United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development.  Innovative Technology Verification Report – CHEMetrics, Inc. and AZUR Environmental Ltd RemediAid™ Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon starter Kit. EPA/600-R-01/082.  September 2001.

USEPA, 2001h.  United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development.  Innovative Technology Verification Report –. Field Measurement Technologies for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil siteLAB® Corporation, siteLAB® Analytical Test Kit UVF-3100A. EPA/600-R-01/080.  September 2001.

USEPA, 2002.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Technical Review Workgroup for Lead (TRW) Website.  Technical Review Workgroup for Lead (TRW) Website, Risk Assessment.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/contaminants/lead/trw.htm.  Local Copy (20kb). 

USEPA, 2002b.  Groundwater Sampling Guidelines for Superfund and RCRA Project Managers. EPA542-S-02-001.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/remedytech/tsp/download/gw_sampling_guide.pdf.  Local Copy (631kb).  May 2002.

USEPA, 2002c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  Draft Guidance for Evaluating the Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Pathway from Groundwater and Soils (Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance). EPA 530-D-02-004.  Local Copy (2.0mb).  November 2002.

USEPA, 2002d.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  Calculating Upper Confidence Limits for Exposure Point Concentrations at Hazardous Waste Sites. OSWER 9285.6-10.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/pdf/ucl.pdf.  Local Copy (950kb).  December 2002.

USEPA, 2002e.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Levels for Superfund Sites. OSWER 9355.4-24.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/soil/index.htm.  Local Copy (2.2mb).  December 2002.

USEPA, 2002f.  Guidance on Choosing a Sampling Design for Environmental Data Collection (for Use in Developing a Quality Assurance Project Plan). EPA QA/G-5S. Office of Environmental Information. EPA/240/R-02/005.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/QUALITY/qs-docs/g5s-final.pdf.  Local Copy (1.0mb).  December 2002.

USEPA, 2002g.  Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans. EPA QA/G-5. Office of Environmental Information. EPA/240/R-02/009.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/quality/qs-docs/g5-final.pdf.  Local Copy (402kb).  Decemberm 2002.

USEPA, 2002h.  Method 5035A. Closed-System Purge-and-Trap and Extraction for Volatile Organics in Soil and Waste Samples, Draft Revision 1.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/pdfs/5035a_r1.pdf.  July 2002.

USEPA, 2002i.  Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.  User’s Guide for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 540-K-01-005.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/lead/products.htm. 

USEPA, 2003.  Determinative Chromatographic Separations, EPA SW-846 Method 8000C. Revision 3.  Local Copy (20kb).  March 2003.

USEPA, 2003b.  Guidance for Obtaining Representative Laboratory Analytical Subsamples from Particulate Laboratory Samples, EPA/600/R-03/027.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/char/epa_subsampling_guidance.pdf.  Local Copy (2.9mb).  November 2003.

USEPA, 2003c.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division.  Sample Holding Time Reevaluation, EPA/600/R-05/124.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/esd/cmb/research/bs_033cmb06.pdf.  October 2003.

USEPA, 2004.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waster and Emergency Response.  Treatment Technologies for Site Clean-up: Annual Status Report (Eleventh Edition). EPA 542-R-03-009.  Website URL: http://www.ermi.net/ermiweb.nsf/570d6a95c3311bf485256fc6005d7d36/afc9ee3a0c92514885256fc6006168b9/$FILE/EPA-TreatmentTech.pdf.  Local Copy (5.0b).  February 2004.

USEPA, 2004b.  How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites - A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers. EPA 510-R-04-002.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oust/pubs/tums.htm.  Local Copy (20kb).  May 2004.

USEPA, 2004c.  Site Characterization Technologies for DNAPL Investigations. EPA 542-R-04-017. Solid Waste and Emergency Response (5102G).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/tio/download/char/542r04017.pdf.  Local Copy (2.9mb).  September 2004.

USEPA, 2004d.  Region IX. Preliminary Remediation Goals.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/region09/superfund/prg/index.html.  Local Copy (82kb).  October 2004.

USEPA, 2004e.  User's Guide for the Johnson and Ettinger (1991) Model for Subsurface Vapor Intrusion into Buildings. EPA 68-W-02-33, WA No. 004, PN 030224. Washington, DC.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/airmodel/pdf/2004_0222_3phase_users_guide.pdf.  Local Copy (1.3mb).  February 22.

USEPA, 2004f.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  User’s Guide for Subsurface Vapor Intrusion into Buildings.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oerrpage/superfund/.  February 2004.

USEPA, 2005.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.  Groundwater Sampling and Monitoring with Direct Push Technologies. EPA 540/R-04/005, OSWER 9200.1-51 (5204G).  Website URL: http://clu-in.org/download/char/540r04005.pdf.  Local Copy (1.3mb).  August 2005.

USEPA, 2005b.  USEPA Region 9 Technical Guidelines for Accurately Determining Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Soil and Solid Matrices, R9QA/05.2.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/region09/qa/pdfs/r9voc-guide06.pdf.  December 2005

USEPA, 2005c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Perchlorate Treatement Technology Update. Federal Facilities Forum Issue Paper. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA 542-R-05-015.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/remed/542-r-05-015.pdf.  Local Copy (2.5mb).  May 2005.

USEPA, 2006.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Information.  Data Quality Assessment: A Reviewer's Guide. EPA QA/G-9R, EPA/240/B-06/002.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/quality1/qs-docs/g9r-final.pdf.  Local Copy (259kb).  February 2006.

USEPA, 2006b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Information.  Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process. EPA QA/G-4, EPA/240/B-06/001.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/quality1/qs-docs/g4-final.pdf.  Local Copy (1.7mb).  February 2006.

USEPA, 2006c.  On the Computation of a 95% Upper Confidence Limit of the Unknown Population Mean Based Upon Data Sets with Below Detection Limit Observations. EPA/600/R-06/022.  Website URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_Report.cfm?dirEntryID=150528.  Local Copy (741kb).  March 2006.

USEPA, 2006d.  Nitroaromatics, Nitramines, and Nitrate Esters by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Revison 2, SW846 Methods, Method 8330B.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/pdfs/8330b.pdf.  Local Copy (285kb).  October 2006.

USEPA, 2006e.  All Appropriate Inquires Rule: Reporting Requirements and Suggestions on Report Content. Brownfields Fact Sheet. EPA 560-F-06-244.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/regneg.htm.  Local Copy (46kb).  November 2006.

USEPA, 2006f.  In-Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Soils - Engineering Forum Issue Paper. EPA 542/F-06/013.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/remedytech/tsp/download/542f06013.pdf.  Local Copy (940kb).  November 2006.

USEPA, 2006g.  Office of Environmental Information, Washington, DC.  Data Quality Assessment: Statistical Methods for Practitioners, EPA QA/G-9S. EPA/240/B-06/003.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/quality/qs-docs/g9s-final.pdf. 

USEPA, 2007.  CLU-IN database of Characterization and Monitoring, Field Analytic Technologies.  Website URL: http://clu-in.org/char/technologies/. 

USEPA, 2007b.  ProUCL Version 4.0 software. Software for calculating Upper Confidence Limits.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/esd/tsc/software.htm. 

USEPA, 2007c.  USEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/iris/index.html. 

USEPA, 2007d.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Research Advances Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) Techniques for Effective Site Cleanup. Office of Research and Development.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/research/npd/pdfs/lrp-factsheet_mna.pdf.  Local Copy (128kb).  September 2007.

USEPA, 2007e.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/R-07/141.  Investigation of the Influence of Temporal Variation on Active Soil Gas/Vapor Sampling.  December 2007.

USEPA, 2007f.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, SW-846 Manual, Washington, D.C.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods (Revision 5).  February 2007 (and updates).

USEPA, 2007g.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, At USEPA SW-846 Methods site.  Method 6200, Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the Determination of Elemental Concentrations in Soil and Sediment (SW-846 Method 6200).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  February 2007.

USEPA, 2007h.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Turbidimetric Screening Method for Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil (SW-846 Method 9074).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  February 2007.

USEPA, 2007i.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening Solid Samples for Volatile Organics (SW-846 Method 3815).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  February 2007.

USEPA, 2007j.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Triazinine Herbicides as Atrazine in Water by Quantitative Immunoassay (SW-846 Method4670).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  February 2007.

USEPA, 2007k.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Pentachlorophenol in Soil by UV-Induced Colorimetry. (SW-846 Method 8540).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  February 2007.

USEPA, 2008.  Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (Site) Program for Monitoring and Characterization Technologies.  Website URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=56160. 

USEPA, 2008.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, Third Edition, as updated by Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, III, IIIA, IIIB, IVA and IVB. EPA Test Method SW-846 (Online).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/online/index.htm. 

USEPA, 2008b.  Screening Levels for Chemical Contaminants: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, May 29, 2008, prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratories.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/prg/index.html.  September 2008.

USEPA, 2008c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Engineering Issue, Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches. Office of Research and Development. National Risk Management Research Laboratory. EPA/600/R-08-115.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/download/char/600r08115.pdf.  Local Copy (523kb).  October 2008.

USEPA, 2008d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation.  Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/i-beam/overview.html.  October 2008.

USEPA, 2008e.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs.  Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Pentachlorophenol.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/pentachlorophenol_red.pdf.  Local Copy (973kb).  September 25, 2008.

USEPA, 2008f.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Performance of the CAPE Technologies DF1 Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit for Soil and Sediment Samples (SW-846 Method 4025).  Website URL: http://www.cape-tech.com/SITE_Program_Phase_2_final_report.pdf.  February 2008.

USEPA, 2009.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/R-09/073.  Vertical Distribution of VOCs in Soils from Groundwater to the Surface/Subslab.  August 2009.

USEPA, 2010.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. SW-846 Third Edition and Update IV.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/online/index.htm.  June 2010.

USEPA, 2010b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Institutional Controls: A Guide to Planning, Implementing, Maintaining, and Enforcing Institutional Controls at Contaminated Sites, Interim Final. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA-540-R-09-001.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/ic/pdfs/PIME-IC-Guidance-Interim.pdf.  Local Copy (735kb).  November 2010.

USEPA, 2010c.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory.  Vertical Distribution of VOCs in Soils from Groundwater to the Surface/Subslab, Soil Vapor Probe Equilibration Study.  March 2010.

USEPA, 2010d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory.  Vertical Distribution of VOCs in Soils from Groundwater to the Surface/Subslab, Stratification of VOCs in Groundwater & Soil Vapor Probe Equilibration Study.  August 2010.

USEPA, 2010e  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup.  Website URL: https://clu-in.org/download/char/EPA-542-f-10-010.pdf.  September 2010.

USEPA, 2011.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Air Sparging Overview. Technology Innovation and Field Services Division.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Air_Sparging/cat/Overview. 

USEPA, 2011b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Overview. Technology Innovation and Field Services Division.  Website URL: http://clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Bioremediation_of_Chlorinated_Solvents/cat/Overview/. 

USEPA, 2011c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency  In-Situ Oxidation Overview. Technology Innovation and Field Services Division.  Website URL: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/In_Situ_Oxidation/cat/Overview/. 

USEPA, 2011d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, EPA/600/R-090/052F.  Exposure Factors Handbook.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov.  September 2011.

USEPA, 2011e.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, EPA 530-R-10-001.  Background Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in North American Residences (1990–2005): A Compilation of Statistics for Assessing Vapor Intrusion.  June 2011

USEPA, 2012.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, EPA 530-R-10-002.  EPA’s Vapor Intrusion Database: Evaluation and Characterization of Attenuation Factors for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds and Residential Buildings.  March 2012.

USEPA, 2012b.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratories.  Screening Levels for Chemical Contaminants.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/prg/.  2012

USEPA, 2012c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.  Recommendations for Default Value for Relative Bioavailability of Arsenic in Soil. OSWER 9200.1-113.  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/bioavailability/.  Local Copy (38kb).  December 2012.

USEPA, 2012d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, D.C. EPA 530-R-10-003.  Conceptual Model Scenarios for the Vapor Intrusion Pathway.  February 2012.

USEPA, 2013.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, EPA 510-R-13-001.  Evaluation of Empirical Data to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds.  January 2013

USEPA, 2013b.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Office of Research and Development.  ProUCL Version 5.0.00 User Guide, Statistical Software for Environmental Applications for Data Sets with and without Nondetect Observations, EPA/600/R-07/041.  September 2013.

USEPA, 2014b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening for PCDD/PCDFs by Immunoassay. (SW-846 Method 4025).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  July 2014.

USEPA, 2014c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Screening for Dioxin-like Chemical Activity in Soils and Sediments using CALUX Bioassay and TEQ Determination. (SW-846 Method 4435).  Website URL: http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/index.htm.  July 2014.

USEPA, 2015.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratories.  Screening Levels for Chemical Contaminants.  November 2015.

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USGS, 2002.  Book 9, Handbooks for Water-Resources Investigations - National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data - Chapter A2: Selection of Equipment for Water Sampling. Version 2.  Website URL: http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter2/Chapter2_V2uncompressed.pdf.  Local Copy (5.9mb).  March 2002.

USGS, 2005.  National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data, Book 9, Handbooks for Water-Resources Investigations, Chapter A8, Bottom-Material Samples. Version 1.1.  Website URL: http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter8/508Chap8final.pdf.  Local Copy (432kb).  June 2005.

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